She 'tricked' her audience by telling them that the 'triangle of life' is "based upon fraudulent information because the Mexico City Earthquake happened before the children were in their schools.
* ARTI has started a Competition for schoolchildren, around the world, studying 'disasters' It is called the " Sophie, Make a Difference Competition" ..see below for details and the winning essay.
The gospel writers wrote in a Hellenistic milieu where these ideas circulated freely and likely influenced them. Indeed, many of the god-man stories were so embarrassingly close to the life of Jesus, that some of the early Church Fathers in the post-gospel decades argued that the Devil, knowing in advance of Jesus' coming, copied the story of his life in the myths of the ancient deities!
Mark, using the Greek biographical model, drew much of his inspiration from the, building on the Jewish belief that the Messiah would be a historical, rather than a mythical savior. The author's belief that Jesus was the Son of God meant to him that his life would have been foretold and modeled on the beliefs, events and heroes of the Jewish (Old) Testament. Mark would rework Hebrew scripture through the Jewish rabbinical technique of , that is, elaborating on and interpreting sacred text from the past to explain and confirm truth for his time.
A case in point is the . Paul and the early Christians knew Jesus was crucified, but lacked details of the event. Mark mined the book of Isaiah (chapter 53) for the suffering servant motif and Psalm 22 ("My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?) for descriptive details in order to build his narrative of Jesus' death on the cross (Mk. 15:21-39). Matthew and Luke follow suit, but the former goes one step further; instead of the of darkness over all the land during Jesus' last three hours on the cross (when the sun hides its face in shame: (Is.24: 23)). Matthew substituted an earthquake when Jesus gave up the ghost. Matthew remembered Isaiah's account of Judah's deliverance (Is. 26:19). He writes of a great earthquake striking Jerusalem and many graves opening from which God's saints rise zombie-like from the dead, and after Jesus' resurrection walk about to be seen by many (Matt. 27:50-54). But John, who supposedly was present at the crucifixion, does not mention any of these fantastic events in his gospel - the earthquake, the three hours of darkness and the once dead walking about in Jerusalem (Jn. 19:25-37). Nor were these incredible events reported by any non-Christian writers of the period (e.g. Josephus, Seneca, Pliny the Elder). This is not history, but heroic mythmaking based on a midrash of ancient texts.
Mark is the first writer to introduce the empty tomb story. But he has no resurrection appearances -- neither the appearances related by Paul, nor those in the later gospels of Matthew, Luke and John. Mark ends his gospel with a promise that the risen Jesus would be seen in Galilee and has the women running from the empty tomb in terror, saying nothing to anyone despite the youth in the tomb telling them to "Fear nothing; you are looking for Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. He has been raised again; he is not here; look, there is the place where they laid him. But go and give this message to his disciples and Peter: "He is going before you into Galilee; there you will see him, as he told you" (Mk. 16:6-8). Did Mark conclude his gospel this way because he was using a literary device to remind us that Jesus' closest disciples fled the crucifixion in fear, or as an explanation of why the tomb story was not told until some four decades after the event? Mark has no witnesses to Christ's resurrected body in his account, because for Mark, the empty tomb was not proof of the resurrection, but a consequence of it.
Note that biblical scholars have concluded that the (Mk. 16:9-20) are an interpolation (a polite term for "forgery"). These verses are not found in the earliest copies of the gospel and the writing style is different. Christian scribes, who were dissatisfied with the abrupt ending to Mark, added them later. Many biblical exegetes think that the last chapter of John (21) is an interpolation as well, added early in the second century. The alteration of text in the New Testament was very common over the centuries. No original manuscripts of the 27 books of the New Testament survive and the 5,400 handwritten copies and fragments that are still extant (most from the Middle Ages) date from the second century down to the 15th century when the printing press was invented. The earliest complete copies of the gospels date from about 300 CE As scribes copied the text they corrected what they perceived as mundane errors from spelling to biblical references. However, sometimes they also copied marginal notes made by other scribes into the text, and sometimes changed or rearranged text to promote a particular theology or agenda. For example, someone added Peter as a witness to the empty tomb in Luke's gospel (Lk. 24:12) to emphasize the primacy of Peter in the resurrection narrative. This verse does not appear in the earliest manuscripts. No one has yet been able to count all the changes to the manuscripts, but some have estimated that they are well in excess of 200,000!
But why would Mark ignore resurrection appearances described in the later gospels? If these appearance stories were well known (presumably they were the impetus for belief) and circulating among the early Christians, surely Mark would have heard of them and used them just as the later gospel writers did. The reason he did not use them is that they were only invented 15 to 30 years after Mark wrote his gospel, to respond to the exigencies of the times and to promote the viewpoints of their authors.
When the author of Matthew wrote his gospel about the year 85, and the author of Luke a few years later, they both had copies of Mark in front of them. Mark has a total of 661 verses, but only about 31 do not appear in some form or another in the combined gospels of Matthew and Luke. Matthew uses about 90 per cent of Mark's material and Luke about 50 per cent. Where Matthew and Luke digress from Mark's biography, they draw on another, but . One can hardly say that Matthew and Luke are independent witnesses of Jesus' life.
For example, compare the accounts of Jesus and his disciples in the Garden of Gethsemane - Mark 14:32-42, Matthew 26:36-46 and Luke 22:39-46. Note how Matthew and Luke depend on Mark who in turn has drawn on Psalm 116:1-4; 10-15, to show Jesus' emotions running from fear and agony, to prayer and then to resolution to face death. In order to develop his motif, Mark also employs creative license with Old Testament passages such as 1 Kings, chapter 19 where Elijah (who also was later carried up to heaven) flees from authorities who seek his arrest and death, leaves his servant behind and prays under a tree to be delivered. Mark also draws on the book of Jonah (Jonah was in the belly of a great fish for three days and nights until he was spit out at God's command). Jonah was deeply grieved in Nineveh to the point of death as was Jesus in Gethsemane (Jonah 4:1-8). The description of Christ's agony in Gethsemane is a poignant but fictional piece of literature based on the reworking of ancient text. This can be further deduced by the fact that no one could have known the words that Jesus prayed because the disciples were asleep (Mk. 14:37).
However, when it came to the resurrection narrative, Matthew and Luke found few details to draw on from Mark and most frustrating of all, Mark had no resurrection appearances. They had to rework the story and in the process, new and often contradictory descriptions appeared. The gospel of John is mostly independent of the synoptic gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke and draws on its own traditions and sources. Matthew, Luke and John could still find inspiration in Old Testament passages such as God bringing the dead back to life in the valley of the dry bones (Ezekiel 37:1-14), and from the words: "... many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth will wake, some to everlasting life...." (Daniel 12:2). Paul had ignored passages such as these because they did not fit his conception of resurrection.
Moreover, in the last two decades of the first century when these gospels were written, there were growing religious disputes among those in the. Chief among the cults was that preached individual spiritual revelation and knowledge of God rather than faith was the means of salvation; Docetism that believed that matter was inherently evil, therefore Jesus was really a phantasm that only seemed to have a physical body, and being perfect, could not suffer and did not really die on the cross; and Ebionism whose adherents believed Jesus was human but not divine. The gospel writers sought to address these "heresies" as well as to counter arguments from skeptics that the disciples only saw hallucinations of the risen Jesus. There was also polemic from other Jews that Jesus' body was stolen by his disciples. To counter these attacks, the later gospel authors developed resurrection stories with more detail and realism than Paul and Mark did. To aid in this endeavor the authors drew on the books of - chapter 6 for the lion's den (i.e. tomb); chapters 7 and 10 for the radiant heavenly being (i.e. angel); and Jonah for the rising on the third day (Jonah 1:17 - 2:10), as well as Hosea 6:2.
The tomb and resurrection accounts of Jesus in the gospels have some commonalities, but many differences and contradictions that cannot be reconciled. This should be no surprise given their provenance. Today, literalists often attempt to harmonize the accounts, but their labors are not convincing because they have to leave some information out for this to work. For example, the gospel writers cannot agree on who first went to the tomb: whether it was Mary Magdalene alone as in John, or Mary along with different women in the synoptic gospels. Mark and Luke say the women went to anoint Jesus' body with spices on Sunday morning, but John relates that this had already been done (to excess: 100 pounds of spices) when Jesus was buried. In reality, there was no Jewish practice of washing and anointing a corpse a second time. Matthew, who has the women observe the burial, wisely states they went the second time only to visit the body, and John says only Mary Magdalene went for the same reason. Matthew says the stone covering the tomb's entrance was rolled away in their presence when they arrived, whereas Mark, Luke and John state it was rolled away before they arrived.
None of the gospels but Matthew's has the improbable story of a guard at the tomb (Matt. 27:62-66; 28:11-15). This was invented in order to counter Jewish charges that the disciples had stolen the body. This just doesn't ring true for it would have meant Jewish leaders going to Pilate on the Sabbath (!) to engage a guard for the tomb the day after (!) the burial, and then bribing them to say the disciples stole the body after the soldiers had fallen asleep -- a dereliction of duty that would have meant severe punishment (flogging and even death) by the Roman military.
Mark has a young man inside the tomb relating the message of resurrection, while Matthew has one angel, Luke has two men, and John has two angels. Did the women see the risen Jesus at the tomb? Mark and Luke say no, Matthew says yes and John says not at first but Mary Magdalene did later. Jesus' first appearance to the disciples is implied by Mark to be in Galilee, 70 to 100 miles (115 to 165 km) from Jerusalem, a 7 to 10 day journey. Matthew confirms this, but Luke says the first appearance happened at Emmaus seven miles from Jerusalem and then later that evening in the city itself. John also has Jesus appear to the disciples first in Jerusalem. Could such conflicting testimony ever be credible today in a court of law? Such disharmony and contradiction about the most important event of Christianity leaves the biblical literalist in a quandary. If the Bible is the , then why did an all-wise, all-powerful God guide the authors to write such contradictory texts? Which version of events is true?
The description of the risen Jesus in the gospels is one of him having a physical body, but hard to recognize at first. This is a body that walks and talks, that at times can be touched and examined, that eats food, but at the same time can walk through closed doors into a room and finally ascend through the clouds to heaven. We can see how the resurrection accounts have progressed from Paul's vision experience, to Mark's disappeared body, to Matthew's physical encounter doubted by some, to Luke's physical encounter when dining, and finally John's physical encounter by examining Jesus' wounds. The trend to develop even more elaborate myths about the risen Christ continued into the second century. For example, the non-canonical gospel of Peter, likely written between 100-150 CE, picks up where Matthew left off and describes Jesus' actual resurrection and ascension. It describes how after the heavens opened, two young men descended in a great light, went into the tomb and then the guards:
This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate drafts, and suggest what to avoid. Disaster Earthquake Essay Assignment
Do To Survive A Major Disaster Such As An Earthquake Requires Essay you know how to prepare for and survive a major earthquake? According This list can also be applied to other disasters, such as floods or wildfires. It's also
Make a plan with your family. No matter when it strikes—though especially if it does so during school and business hours—the earthquake will leave countless people separated from their loved ones. At the same time, it will cut or severely compromise telecommunications systems, making it difficult or impossible to track one another down via phone calls, e-mails, or texts. Ask a friend or relative outside the region to agree to serve as a contact person for your family; if it does become possible to send messages in some form, you’re more likely to get through to someone when their end of the communications systems is functional and the lines aren’t overloaded. Choose a meeting place for your family, remembering that many bridges will be down and many roads impassable. Find out if your city has designated earthquake-gathering areas, where food, water, and first aid will be available; some, like , do. If you have children, learn the earthquake plan at their schools, day-care centers, camps, and after-school activities. If you live across a bridge from where you work or where your children attend school, arrange in advance for a friend to pick them up or meet them at home if the earthquake occurs during school hours and you cannot get there yourself.