Instruction in the processes of composition has an effect on the students’ ability to reflect on their writing and to produce more effective and appropriate texts in the target language. , working with secondary school students, describes the effects of giving instruction in revision strategies to writers of English as a second language. He found that explicit teaching of these strategies had a measurable effect on the quality of the students’ final draft. reported on the effects of students learning to self-monitor their writing and to pay attention to the process and the organization of their writing. He reported improvement in the students’ ability to pay attention to the content and organization of their writing. found that teaching second language writers topical structure analysis to use as a revision strategy had a positive effect on the clarity of focus of the final texts. At a more general level, reported on the effects of EFL writing instruction on composing in both first and second languages. They found that the students used similar composing strategies in both their L1 (Turkish) and L2 (English) and that writing instruction in the L2 had a positive effect both on their writing processes and on their attitudes to writing in the two languages.
Researchers adopting a socio-cultural framework, following in the footsteps of ; , who believed that all learning was essentially social, have explored the way in which L2s are learned through a process of co-construction between 'experts' and 'novices'. Language learning is seen as the appropriation of a tool through the shift from inter-mental to intra-mental processes. Learners first need the help of experts in order to 'scaffold' them into the next developmental stages before they can appropriate the newly acquired knowledge. This is seen as a quintessentially social process, in which interaction plays a central role, not as a source of input, but as a shaper of development (; ).
Research concerning teaching learning of writing of a foreign language will continue with specific focus on individual language domains and sub-domains. All the same, the role played by research in the study of foreign language is noteworthy. As a teacher for English as a foreign language, the literature review enhances my knowledge of the various aspects of effective teaching and learning of foreign languages. The role of the teacher is to facilitate learning and make evaluations on the progress and make necessary corrections. The students also have a role to play in ensuring that they attain the best out of the teachers’ demonstrations.
Cummins has devised a model whereby the different tasks we expect our students to engage in can be categorized. In the diagram below tasks range in difficulty along one continuum from cognitively undemanding to cognitively demanding; and along the other continuum from context-embedded to context-reduced. A context-embedded task is one in which the student has access to a range of additional visual and oral cues; for example he can look at illustrations of what is being talked about or ask questions to confirm understanding. A context-reduced task is one such as listening to a lecture or reading dense text, where there are no other sources of help than the language itself. Clearly, a D quadrant task, which is both cognitively demanding and context- reduced, is likely to be the most difficult for students, particularly for non-native speakers in their first years of learning English. However, it is essential that ESL students develop the ability to accomplish such tasks, since academic success is impossible without it.
As Cummins (2000) states: "Conceptual knowledge developed in one language helps tomake input in the other language comprehensible." If a child already understands theconcepts of "justice" or "honesty" in her own language, all she has todo is acquire the label for these terms in English. She has a far more difficult task,however, if she has to acquire both the label and the concept in her second language.
Thank you for your attention. We hope this post succeeded in motivating you to carry on with vocabulary studies. In March, we will explore how people actually learn new words. In the meantime, don’t forget to comment – for example, we would love to hear what role vocabulary has played in your language studies!
Learning English as a second language is a barrier that must be overcome if the student is expected to progress through the American education system and can have definite impacts on learning all other subjects, because if the student doesn’t have a mastery of English mechanics it effects the ability of that student to master other subject areas due to the language barrier....
in the number of students whose first language is not English and who need language assistance in order to access and benefit from the total curriculum. Although the largest numbers of limited English proficient students are at the elementary level, increasing numbers of new arrivals are entering secondary grades. Students progress in English at different rates depending on a number of variables including educational background, native language spoken, literacy skills in their native language, and previous contact with English. In any case, students generally have the greatest difficulty becoming proficient English writers.
From "On or Under the Water" the cluster might look like this:
b. Word Scroll or Graphic
Completing the graphic helps readers visually see relationships that they might otherwise overlook. When completing a vocabulary graphic, a portion of the visual should include personal connections to the word, as in the previous example.
The goal of this activity is to have students actually participate in a process that has traditionally been
used by teachers to modify text for English language learners. Through the use of simplification,
expansions, direct explanations, and comparisons, comprehension is built in to create a clearer, more
understandable text, as in the following example:Simplification: The government's funds were depleted. (It was almost out of money.)Expansion of ideas: The government funds were depleted. (It had spent a lot of money on things;
equipment, help of the poor. It did not have any more money to spend on anything else.)Direct definition: The government's funds were depleted. (This means that the government had spent
all of its money. (Diaz-Rico, & Weed, 2003, p. 230).For this activity, the teacher models the first work after creating a bulletin board which is labeled as follows: The end goal of this activity is to have students do this activity in groups, with the teacher circulating as facilitator. The amount of teacher-directed instruction is going to vary depending on the students involved. Organize students into small groups and have them brainstorm ideas about the history of inventions related to transportation. Then, have them share with the whole class. As ideas are shared, create a graphic on the board or overhead. Each cooperative group is to select an area for further research. An example of a graphic which might culminate study of transportation inventions follows:Each group is to create a poster "showing" their topic in an organized fashion.The group has to decide how best to organize their information.
I can’t imagine how hard it must be to learn to write comfortably in a second—or third or fourth—language. I don’t think I could do it, and I admire your grace in taking on that difficult task. Much of the anxiety that I see in foreign students could be avoided if certain principles of writing good English—which nobody ever told them—were explained in advance. So I asked if I could talk to all of you during orientation week and tell you some of the things my students have found helpful.
For a second language learner, writing is an extension of listening and speaking. Therefore, the student must be provided opportunities to build, extend, and refine oral language in order to improve written output. Since writing involves some risk-taking, it is important for students to be comfortable taking risks. They need to know that their efforts are appreciated and that the message they are trying to convey is valued over the form.