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Photos of the Vietnam War in 1965: Humanity Among …

Dr. John Vecihi Basarin, the Chair of the Jury underlined the friendship among Turks and Anzacs saying “”I am quite pleased that ICYF-DC took the opportunity to bring another dimention to the concept of friendship through this essay competition. Frankly, I was very glad with the peaceful messages of young people. As youth, as the people who will take the flags for the coming decades, I was comfortable that the youth of today is very much focused on peace rather than war. So, this contest was demonstrating the showcase of Turkey focusing on peace and considering the wars as a common pain of humanity. I hope we can also propagate the peace to the neighbourhood of Turkey, too.”

Complex life means, by definition, that it has many parts and they move. Complex life needs energy to run its many moving parts. Complexity’s dependence on greater levels of energy use not only applies to all organisms and ecosystems, but it has also applied to all human civilizations, as will be explored later in this essay. When cells became “complex” with organelles, a tiny observer inside that cell would have witnessed a bewildering display of activity, as mitochondria sailed through the cells via “scaffolding” on their energy generating missions, the ingestion of molecules for fuel and to create structures, the miracle of cellular division, the constant building, repair, and dismantling of cellular structures, and the ejection of waste through the cellular membrane. The movement of molecules and organelles in eukaryotic cells is accomplished by using the same protein that became muscle: actin. Prokaryotes used an , and their provide their main mode of travel, to usually move toward food and safety or away from danger, including predators.

Thoreau's Civil Disobedience - 1

International War Crimes Tribunals | Beyond Intractability

World War I was a transformative moment in African-American history

So far in this essay, mammals have received scant attention, but the mammals’ development before the Cenozoic is important for understanding their rise to dominance. The , called , first , about 260 mya, and they had key mammalian characteristics. Their jaws and teeth were markedly different from those of other reptiles; their teeth were specialized for more thorough chewing, which extracts more energy from food, and that was likely a key aspect of success more than 100 million years later. Cynodonts also developed a secondary palate so that they could chew and breathe at the same time, which was more energy efficient. Cynodonts eventually ceased the reptilian practice of continually growing and shedding teeth, and their specialized and precisely fitted teeth rarely changed. Mammals replace their teeth a . Along with tooth changes, jawbones changed roles. Fewer and stronger bones anchored the jaw, which allowed for stronger jaw musculature and led to the mammalian (clench your teeth and you can feel your masseter muscle). Bones previously anchoring the jaw were no longer needed and . The jaw’s rearrangement led to the most auspicious proto-mammalian development: . Mammals had relatively large brains from the very beginning and it was probably initially . Mammals are the only animals with a , which eventually led to human intelligence. As dinosaurian dominance drove mammals to the margins, where they lived underground and emerged to feed at night, mammals needed improved senses to survive, and auditory and olfactory senses heightened, as did the mammalian sense of touch. Increased processing of stimuli required a larger brain, and . In humans, only livers use more energy than brains. Cynodonts also had , which suggest that they were warm-blooded. Soon after the Permian extinction, a cynodont appeared that may have ; it was another respiratory innovation that served it well in those low-oxygen times, functioning like pump gills in aquatic environments.

But the branch of the that readers might find most interesting led to humans. Humans are in the phylum, and the last common ancestor that founded the Chordata phylum is still a mystery and understandably a source of controversy. Was our ancestor a ? A ? Peter Ward made the case, as have others for a long time, that it was the sea squirt, also called a tunicate, which in its larval stage resembles a fish. The nerve cord in most bilaterally symmetric animals runs below the belly, not above it, and a sea squirt that never grew up may have been our direct ancestor. Adult tunicates are also highly adapted to extracting oxygen from water, even too much so, with only about 10% of today’s available oxygen extracted in tunicate respiration. It may mean that tunicates adapted to low oxygen conditions early on. Ward’s respiration hypothesis, which makes the case that adapting to low oxygen conditions was an evolutionary spur for animals, will repeatedly reappear in this essay, as will . Ward’s hypothesis may be proven wrong or will not have the key influence that he attributes to it, but it also has plenty going for it. The idea that fluctuating oxygen levels impacted animal evolution has been gaining support in recent years, particularly in light of recent reconstructions of oxygen levels in the eon of complex life, called and , which have yielded broadly similar results, but their variances mean that much more work needs to be performed before on the can be done, if it ever can be. Ward’s basic hypotheses is that when oxygen levels are high, ecosystems are diverse and life is an easy proposition; when oxygen levels are low, animals adapted to high oxygen levels go extinct and the survivors are adapted to low oxygen with body plan changes, and their adaptations helped them dominate after the extinctions. The has a pretty wide range of potential error, particularly in the early years, and it also tracked atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The challenges to the validity of a model based on data with such a wide range of error are understandable. But some broad trends are unmistakable, as it is with other models, some of which are generally declining carbon dioxide levels, some huge oxygen spikes, and the generally relationship between oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, which a geochemist would expect. The high carbon dioxide level during the Cambrian, of at least 4,000 PPM (the "RCO2" in the below graphic is a ratio of the calculated CO2 levels to today's levels), is what scientists think made the times so hot. (Permission: Peter Ward, June 2014)

How to Write an Essay Introduction (with Sample Intros)

Perhaps the most damaging deficiency in FE efforts, after self-serving orientation, was that the participants and their supporters were scientifically illiterate and easily led astray by the latest spectacle. Scientific literacy can help prevent most such distractions. While writing this essay, I was not only bombarded with news of the latest FE and alternative energy aspirants' antics, but I had to continually field queries regarding whether Peak Oil and Global Warming were conspiratorial elite hoaxes (or figments of the hyperactive imaginations of environmentalists and other activists), for two examples that readily come to mind. Digesting this essay's material should have those questions answered as mere side-effects. Far from being a hoax or imaginary, Peak Oil was and , and it is all downhill from there, and conventional oil will be almost entirely depleted in my lifetime. , although both were heavily promoted in the USA in 2014. In every paleoclimate study that I have seen, so-called greenhouse gases have always been considered the primary determinant of Earth's surface temperature (after the Sun), and carbon dioxide is chief among them. The radiation-trapping properties of carbon dioxide are not controversial in the slightest among scientists, and after the Sun's influence (which is exceedingly stable), declining carbon dioxide levels are considered to be the conditions that have dominated Earth for the past 35 million years. Humanity's increasing the atmosphere's carbon dioxide content is influencing the cause of Icehouse Earth, and , and are merely proximate causes. Increasing carbon dioxide can turn the global climate from an to a Greenhouse Earth, and the last time that happened, Earth had its . But have purposefully confused the issues, and a scientifically illiterate public and have played along, partly because believing the disinformation seems to relieve us all of any responsibility for our actions. Although scientific literacy can help people become immune to the disinformation and confusion arising from many corners, and reading this essay's first half can help people develop their own defense from such distractions, my goals for this essay's first half are far greater than that.

How to Write an Essay Introduction

I developed my current approach by trial and error that was extremely hazardous and painful, and took most of a lifetime to achieve. I hope that this essay can help shorten the learning curve for those whom I seek. Many readers of this essay will get bogged down early on and skip to the end, and they will get out of the experience what they put into it. Such people are not in my target audience, unless they have already mastered this essay’s material, but I have never met even one such person. I will continue studying this subject matter for the remainder of my life, and have a ways to go before I can consider my grasp of it firm. This essay is largely intended to help readers develop a comprehensive awareness of life’s journey on Earth and see when humanity enters the play. When readers can do that and come to appreciate it, they will have an easier time avoiding the egocentric levels of FE awareness (), and reach something that might be called soul-centric. It should help them shed not only those scarcity-based ideologies and their insidious, , but they should also begin to understand why approaches rooted in such ideologies are doomed to failure for this task. We cannot drag our scarcity-based baggage with us for establishing a world of abundance. The GCs are masters of using people’s allegiance to those ideologies to enslave their minds and spirits. What I will be asking of my target audience will be anything but easy, and can actually be quite dangerous if caution is not exercised. But for those who use this material properly, it can improve their understanding in important ways.

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Thoreau's Civil Disobedience - with annotated text


The Vietnam War | Peace History

In 63 BCE, a conspiracy to overthrow the Republic was exposed by , and in 60 BCE the was formed and its three members, including , all came to violent ends; then the Roman civil wars began in earnest. The Second Triumvirate was formed in 43 BCE, and included and , of fame. After Augustus defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s fleet in the in 31 BCE, the Roman Republic ended and Rome became an empire, the greatest that humanity has known. At its height, it governed a quarter of humanity. From the to the , Rome as a republic or empire lasted for nearly two millennia. Its impact on Western Civilization, and hence the world, has been incalculable. There are far too many important lessons to be learned from the Roman experience than this essay can explore, but I will try to keep the lessons within this essay’s theme and purpose, which is humanity’s relationship to energy and our collective future.

Humanity - definition of humanity by The Free Dictionary

Dr. John Vecihi Basarin, the Chair of the Jury underlined the friendship among Turks and Anzacs saying “”I am quite pleased that ICYF-DC took the opportunity to bring another dimention to the concept of friendship through this essay competition. Frankly, I was very glad with the peaceful messages of young people. As youth, as the people who will take the flags for the coming decades, I was comfortable that the youth of today is very much focused on peace rather than war. So, this contest was demonstrating the showcase of Turkey focusing on peace and considering the wars as a common pain of humanity. I hope we can also propagate the peace to the neighbourhood of Turkey, too.”

hu·man·i·ty (hyo͞o-măn′ĭ-tē) n

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Humans considered as a group; the human race

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The condition or quality of being human

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