With respect, this webmaster disagrees. I agree that "selfishness, greed, and apathy" are still major problems to be overcome to prevent future environmental catastrophes, However, I see are other major factors. One is the widespread denial of many observations and conclusions of scientists on a range of topics by many present-day religious and poltical conservatives.
Vladimir F.J. Tomek (1922-2012) donated many of the essays in this section. He was concerned that "." He graduated from Charles' University in Prague as a 'Doctor of natural science' (chemistry and physics) in 1947. After a most eventful life, he settled in Ireland during 1968. He wrote many papers and essays on the topics of religion and the environment, and generously donated many of them to be added to this web site. Five years have passed since he died, and his vision of our march towards "ecological disaster" continues around the world as he predicted.
Note: China’s ecolabeling policy covers wood based panels, wood flooring, and wood furniture products. The policy itself has no requirements for timber legality or sustainability, but the technical requirements for ecolabeling timber products requires that (1) imported wood originates from sustainably managed forests; (2) domestic wood complies with relevant laws and regulations; and that (3) wood products meet CITES requirements. The policy is mandatory to central government agencies.
Sources: Atanasova, 2010; Belgian Council of Ministers, 2005; Belgian Government, 2008; Chatham House, 2010; Danish Forest and Nature Agency, 2011; EFI, 2010B; European Commission, 2010; European Parliament, 2010; Finnish Ministry of Employment and the Economy, 2010. German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, 2010; Gobierno de Mexico, 2007; Japanese Ministry of the Environment, 2006; Lopez-Casero and Scheyvens, 2008; Ministere de l’Agriculture et de la Peche, 2008; New Zealand Ministry of Forestry website; New Zealand Ministry of Forestry, 2006; Norwegian Ministry of the Environment, 2007; Sao Paulo State Government, 2009; Standing Forestry Committee Ad Hoc Working Group IV on Public Procurement of Wood and Wood-based Products. 2010. Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, 2010A; Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, 2010B; Simula, 2010; Sun, 2012; TPAC, 2008; TPAC website; Van der Berk, 2010; Wenming, 2007.
(Example of illegal logging are provided in Box 4.)
Timothy R Walsh, Janis Weeks, David M Livermore, Mark A Toleman. . (2011) Dissemination of NDM-1 positive bacteria in the New Delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study. 11:5, 355-362.
There is no single standard supply chain for wood and paper-based products and all supply chains are different. There are, however, common elements that can be useful to clarify the connections among various manufacturing points, the product flows, and the environmental and social issues associated (figure below).
Concern about antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is not new, however. This fact is clearly reflected in articles published 50 years ago in the Journal. A 1960 accompanying an on novobiocin and tetracycline decried the overuse of antibiotics and the irrational use of fixed combinations of antimicrobials, which were widely manufactured and prescribed by the pharmaceutical industry at that time. Another on the transmissibility of staphylococci noted that the administration of tetracycline to hospitalized patients increased the rate of nasopharyngeal colonization with S. aureus, much of which showed resistance to tetracycline. Another Journal on antibiotic resistance quoted a study from Hammersmith Hospital clearly showing that limiting the use of antimicrobial agents in the hospital setting was associated with a decrease in resistance to penicillin and tetracycline among staphylococci.
Interest in procurement of wood and paper-based goods produced in a sustainable manner is growing. Concerned consumers, retailers, investors, communities, governments, and other groups increasingly want to know that in buying and consuming these products they are making positive social and environmental contributions.
The policy is being implemented in a step-wise approach to increase the proportion of products certified under the FSC standard. Where FSC products are not available, Staples accepts products certified under the PEFC, SFI and CSA systems. Suppliers are required to comply with all environmental and forestry laws and regulations. Suppliers are asked to confirm the sources of the fiber in the products, and indicate if the fiber has been legally harvested and traded. Suppliers are also asked to demonstrate that their products do not come from controversial sources, including wood harvested in violation of traditional and civil rights. Staples surveys paper product suppliers to confirm the sources of the fiber of their products and the certification requirements. The company also has a third party to assess the supply chain of the products on a random sample of the supplier base to confirm the validity of the information about the products. For suppliers sourcing from areas identified as potentially controversial (e.g. risk of illegal logging), suppliers are asked to demonstrate through credible third-party certification that the sourced products are non-controversial. Top suppliers are also requested to periodically report the environmental performance of their paper making facilities, or the papermakers from where they purchase the paper. The policy is being implemented in a phased approach to all paper products suppliers, starting with markets in North America and moving to Europe and other international markets. Implementation is prioritized to address potential risk based on the country of origin, source, and transparency of the supply chain.
Noji E, Lee CY. Disaster preparedness. In: Frumkin H, editor. Environmental health, from global to local. 1st edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2005.
In Switzerland, the Ordinance on Declaring Wood and Wood Products (Ordonnance sur la Declaration Concernant le Bois et les Produits en Bois) from 2010, requires any party selling timber or timber products to consumers to disclose information about the species used in the product, including whether or not the species is listed in CITES, and the place of harvest. Timber and timber products covered include firewood, roundwood and wood in the rough, pickets and stakes of wood, railway sleepers, sawmill products, sheets for veneering, carpentry, joinery, furniture made entirely of solid wood, and other solid wood items (Federal Department of Economic Affairs, 2010; Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, 2010).
These cross-cutting issues are not yet understood well enough to inform the development of systems for measuring and tracking their impact. Further exploration is warranted. The environmental health landscape will continue to evolve and may present opportunities for additional research, analysis, and monitoring.
The Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) Action Plan is the European Union (EU) response to concerns about illegal logging and deforestation. FLEGT started in 2001, with a ministerial conference in Indonesia; the Action Plan was completed in 2003.