Benjamin Rush took a logos approach to promoting temperance, noting the harmful physiological effects of alcohol. He did not appeal to pathos until the end of "The Effect of Ardent Spirits Upon Man," when he described the moral depravity and social ills caused by alcohol consumption. Rush's use of pathos may have been too little too late. The weakness of using a logical argument is that it can be refuted, either with other logical explanations, new information or emotional appeals. It is harder to question people's emotions and deeply held morals and values. To do so would not only be considered offensive, it would also be futile. As I wrote earlier, how could anyone question such fundamental beliefs? And, if anyone did, who would listen?
There are four reasons why prohibition ultimately failed in Canada: (1) it was not really enforced; (2) it was not truly effective; (3) a shift in popular thought; (4) and loss of public support.
In many ways, Temperance and Prohibition Era posters offered a condensed version of the scientific and religious pamphlets, presenting their most striking and compelling arguments through images and sound bytes. Many of the posters took the Benjamin Rush approach, showing scientific and logical evidence to prove that alcohol consumption was detrimental to both body and soul.
However, inmates with children are perhaps the most affected by the pains of imprisonment as the separation and loss of contact to these children effect both the parents, children and all loved ones close by.
Abraham Lincoln once said “Prohibition...goes beyond the bounds of reason in that it attempts to control a man’s appetite by legislation and makes a crime out of things that are not crimes”....
Widespread religious fervor was a central feature of the Temperance and Prohibition eras. In the early nineteenth century, a religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening took the nation by storm (284). As James Morone wrote in his recent book, Hellfire Nation: The Politics of Sin in American History, "With preachers announcing that the millennium lay at hand, men and women began to swear off hard spirits; the yearning for perfection drew them until they were pledging total abstinence" (284). Many of the original Temperance societies had religious affiliations, like the evangelical American Temperance Society which was founded in 1826. Ten years later, at the evangelical American Temperance Society's height, one out of every ten Americans was a member (Morone 284).
They approved many exemptions to the long-haul / short-hauldiscrimination ban and the commission did not act vigorously to enforce discriminationprohibitions on types of freight.
Roughly a century later, in the 1910s, there was conservative religious revival in the United States. The religious movements of the Prohibition Era promoted a back to basics approach with a clear, narrow definition of what it meant to be a faithful, observant Christian. Protestant fundamentalists warned of the approaching millennium and the Second Coming of Christ and criticized "the nation's slack morals, 'creampuff' religions" and "'godless social service nonsense'" (Morone 335). Fundamentalist preachers like Billy Sunday told Americans that "the path to heaven ran through a literal reading of the Bible" (335).
Prohibition provided political backing and legitimacy for the religious revivals of the early twentieth century. While critics scoffed at the fundamentalists' stance on the coming millennium and interpretations of the bible, calling them backwards and extreme, Christian fundamentalists held their ground regarding their anti-drinking crusade. According to Morone, "Prohibition offered them [fundamentalists] their one link to national authority, the one public commitment to resisting moral decay" (337).
By 1898 the temperance forces were strong enough to force a national plebiscite on the issue, but the government of decided that the majority of 13,687 votes cast in favour of prohibition was not large enough to warrant passing a law, especially since Québec had voted overwhelmingly against the plebiscite. Much of the country was already "dry" under local option, however, and full provincial bans would eventually emerge.
Various pre-Confederation laws against the sale of alcohol had been passed, including the Dunkin Act in the united in 1864, which allowed any county or municipality to prohibit the retail sale of liquor by majority vote. In 1878 this "local option" was extended to the whole Dominion under the Canada Temperance Act, or Scott Act.
Alcohol causes varying degrees of the following side effects in everyone who uses it; dullness of sensation, lowered sensory motor skills, lowered reactive or reflexive motor responses, impaired thought processes, impaired memory, impaired judgement, sleep or sleeplessness, and in extreme cases can cause coma and death.”(Hardcastle 1)....
The morals and values that the religious revivals of the Temperance and Prohibition Eras promoted were steeped in Puritan ideology. Who were the Puritans? What were their fundamental beliefs?