philosophy, it must more and more brood over the red past and the creeping, crooked present, until it grasps a gospel of revolt and revenge and throws its new-found energies athwart the current of advance. Even to-day the masses of the Negroes see all too clearly the anomalies of their position and the moral crookedness of yours. You may marshal strong indictments against them, but their counter-cries, lacking though they be in formal logic, have burning truths within them which you may not wholly ignore, O Southern Gentlemen! If you deplore their presence here, they ask, Who brought us? When you cry, Deliver us from the vision of intermarriage, they answer that legal marriage is infinitely better than systematic concubinage and prostitution. And if in just fury you accuse their vagabonds of violating women, they also in fury quite as just may reply: The rape which your gentlemen have done against helpless black women in defiance of your own laws is written on the foreheads of two millions of mulattoes, and written in ineffaceable blood. And finally, when you fasten crime upon this race as its peculiar trait, they answer that slavery was the arch-crime, and lynching and lawlessness its twin abortion; that color and race are not crimes, and yet they it is which in this land receives most unceasing condemnation, North, East, South, and West.
Josie was dead, and the gray-haired mother said simply, "We've had a heap of trouble since you've been away." I had feared for Jim. With a cultured parentage and a social caste to uphold him, he might have made a venturesome merchant or a West Point cadet. But here he was, angry with life and reckless; and when Farmer Durham charged him with stealing wheat, the old man had to ride fast to escape the stones which the furious fool hurled after him. They told Jim to run away; but he would not run, and the constable came that afternoon. It grieved Josie, and great awkward John walked nine miles every day to see his little brother through the bars of Lebanon jail. At last the two came back together in the dark night. The mother cooked supper, and Josie emptied her purse, and the boys stole away. Josie grew thin and silent, yet worked the more. The hill became steep for the quiet old father, and with the boys away there was little to do in the valley. Josie helped them to sell the old farm, and they moved nearer town. Brother Dennis, the carpenter, built a new house with six rooms; Josie toiled a year in Nashville, and brought back ninety dollars to furnish the house and change it to a home.
Garrison, William Lloyd. Address Delivered in Boston, New-York and Philadelphia: Before the Free People of Color, in April, 1833. New-York : Printed for the free people of color, 1833.
Call No.: E449 .G24 1833
Slavery Collection, 1709-1864
Diverse collection of materials, 1709-1864, containing correspondence and legal and financial documents related to the North American slave trade, slave ownership, abolition, and political issues pertinent to slavery.
Series I, 1751-1799, and II, 1805-1807, contain correspondence and business papers for Rhode Island merchants Samuel and William Vernon and the Rhode Island firm of Gardner and Dean (formerly Phillips and Gardner) documenting thier involvement in the slave trade and the shipping and sale of slaves in the West Indies and southern United States. Vessels employed by the two firms include the Othello, Ascension, and the Sloop Louisa. Series III consists of various legal and financial documents, 1785-1864, related to slavery in Kentucky, including estate inventories, receipts, and deeds of gift and manumission. Series IV contains papers, 1859-1862, of E.H. Stokes of Richmond, Virginia; including correspondence and receipts pertaining to the sale of slaves in Virginia and Alabama. Series V contains correspondence, 1766-1861, concerning the abolition movement in the United States and individual slaves. Individual correspondents include eminent abolitionists Theodore Weld, Gerrit Smith, and Angelina Grimke. Of additional note is the inclusion of letters to the Governor of Maryland requesting clemency for a slave condemned for theft, and an 1826 letter from a black man, Richard Moran, to his uncle apologizing for his marriage to a white woman. Series VI consists of manifests, 1835-1855, listing persons taken aboard various vessels to be sold as slaves. Series VII is composed of legal documents related to slavery in the United States, 1709-1858, including birth certificates, depositions, petitions, indentures, deeds of manumission, and estate inventories. Series VIII contains financial documents, 1736-1862, pertaining to the sale and ownership of slaves such as accounts, receipts, and returns of taxable property. Series IX contains two poems, 1823 and undated, on the subject of slavery. Series X consists of notes and memoranda, 1790-1855, evidently recorded for newspaper advertisements and articles. Series XI contains newspapers clippings, including advertisements for rewards for return of runaway slaves,
most not attributable to particular newspapers.
Papers of Rufus King
Papers, 1783-1826, of Federalist statesman Rufus King, including official and private correspondence, letterbooks, account books, notebooks, financial documents, diaries, memoranda, essays, and miscellaneous printed and manuscript materials documenting the many facets of King's lengthy political career and private interests. Correspondence, 1786-1826, concerns his activities as a New York Assemblyman, United States Senator, Minister to Great Britain, and Federalist candidate for the United States vice presidency and presidency, pertaining to such matters as the Constitutional Convention of 1787; his opposition to the War of 1812; United States finances; the Navigation Act of 1818; negotiations between the United States and Great Britain over articles 6 and 7 of the Treaty of Peace of 1794; administration and sale of public lands; South American independence; personal business matters; Barbary affairs; and British-French negotiations in 1803. Additionally included are account books, 1783-1825, recording household accounts and accounts with the firm of Bird, Savage & Bird; memorandum books containing abstracts of correspondence; notebooks relating to historical and political topics containing extracts from books read by King along with his own comments and observations; essays, written in French and English, on political and historical subjects; miscellaneous receipts; volumes of notes recording events, conversations, and observations on King's acquaintances and contemporaries, a diary, 1802, kept while traveling in Europe; an inventory of his library in 1827; and miscellaneous news clippings and printed materials. Correspondents include: John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Wm. Henry Cavendish Bentinck, Fisher Ames, Francis Baring, George Cabot, Elbridge Gerry, Christopher Gore, Wm. Grenville, Alexander Hamilton, William Hindman, Charles Jared Ingersoll, John Jay, John Alsop King, Charles King, Nicholas Low, James Madison, Gouverneur Morris, Timothy Pickering, Thomas Pinkney, Philip Schuyler, Granville Sharp, Robert Troup, John Trumbull, Nicholas Vansittart, George Washington, Noah Webster, Wm Wilberforce, Oliver Wolcott, and many others. Historical Note: Federalist statesman, New York State senator, and minister to Great Britain; originally from Massachusetts, later a resident of New York City.
Microfilm copy available
The article provides a different reading of Phillis Wheatley’s most often anthologized poem, “On being brought from AFRICA to AMERICA.” The author uses rhetorics, semiotics, and grammar as reading strategies to reveal Wheatley’s rejection of Christianity, her acknowledgement of life before slavery, and her efforts to align her own body with those of other enslaved Africans.
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While American newspapers published during the Revolution are valuable historical tools, they do present unique problems as primary sources. The very number of 18th-century newspapers is limited as they were generally published weekly and in only one or two cities in each colony. Wartime pressures, scarcity of paper and the British occupation of Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Charleston at various times during the conflict severely disrupted their publication. Some patriot newspapers summarily ceased publishing as the British army approached their city, while others resumed, at best, an irregular printing schedule in exile in outlying areas. Once the fighting began, newspapers that were even mildly Loyalist in orientation rarely survived mob pressure in American cities without the protection of the British army. Hence it is unlikely that researchers will find a Tory and patriot viewpoint simultaneously expressed in newspapers in any given city after 1775, and there were even short periods when major American cities had no newspaper at all.
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The New-York Historical Society has an extensive collection of broadsides that document the American Revolution and the tumultuous events leading up to it. Broadsides, the technical term for any document, large or small, printed on one side of a single sheet of paper, served as posters, handbills, official proclamations, advertisements, and conveyors of ballads and poetry. They were plastered on walls, distributed by hand or read out loud and are especially important for the study of the Revolutionary period. At a time when newspapers were published one or two times a week, broadsides served as the immediate vehicle for late-breaking news: One can find in The New-York Historical Society's collection the first news of the repeal of the Stamp Act and the arrival of a tea ship at Sandy Hook. They report the latest news brought by Paul Revere from Boston and record how news of the events at Lexington and Concord reached New York. Other examples in the collection include a Boston account of the Battle of Bunker Hill told from the British perspective and an appeal, in their own language, to the Pennsylvania Germans to resist the British army as it approaches Philadelphia in December 1776.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense, many editions of which are held by the Library, is one of the best-known examples of a personal polemic. This pamphlet was printed in various cities including Philadelphia, New York, Newburyport, Massachusetts and London. Often additions or slight changes were made at the time of a new printing, as was the case with the Philadelphia printing by R. Bell of Third Street, "To which is added an appendix to Common sense: together with an address to the people called Quakers." A rebuttal to Paine, by Charles Inglis, The deceiver unmasked; or, Loyalty and interest united : in answer to a pamphlet entitled Common sense / by a loyal American, is also held by the library.