Says: Quoting a person with whom you enjoy a close relationship is generally preferable to quoting a famous source. This passageâs strength comes from the brief, understated role that the quote plays. The short statement introduces the rest of the paragraph and presents the fundamental point, and then the essay moves on to examine specific details. This is the ideal role of a quotation.
Knobloch, N.A., (2005). University of Illinois
This powerpoint presentation addresses challenges faculty face with three strategies: active learning, inquiry learning, and service learning. Examples of faculty using each are provided, along with links for each.
There has been much discourse on dealing with uncertainty, particularly with respect to the integrated assessment models used to evaluate mitigation policies, that is relevant for co-benefits modeling (; , ; ; ). Co-benefits studies often take a simplistic, one-dimensional approach to propagating the multiple sources of uncertainty (). Uncertainties are cascaded sequentially through model components starting with “upstream” drivers (e.g., mitigation options, emissions, carbon cycle response, and global climate sensitivity) and then “downstream” to local climate change, exposures, and health impacts. Socioeconomic change, as an example, contributes significant downstream uncertainty (). In some circumstances the combined uncertainty, particularly over the long term, makes it difficult to determine the balance of costs, co-benefits, and co-harms, but additional methods can help narrow estimates substantially, particularly in the near term. The following sections summarize several quantitative approaches. Overcoming challenges in integrating quantitative and nonquantitative approaches to uncertainty characterization is also very important.
First year college students have to deal with the wide range of challenges. The successful integration into college life depends on the ability of the student to make transition into the new role of a college student. There are several inside and outside issues determining the successful college experience such as: student’s commitment, experience at college, academic performance, social network, peer groups, and communities outside the college. For many students, the first year at college is an important step in their life passages. Nevertheless, despite of the expected challenges, it is hardly possible to avoid social and academic integration challenges, department from families and control of parents, and opportunity to have fun while forgetting about the importance of studying.
The second challenge is cultural and social integration. While high school seniors enjoyed popularity in their schools, they may find it difficult to join the social groups at college as they are newcomers and their achievements may not be impressive for the college community. Inability to fit the culture, for example, may result in the social exclusion and contribute to stress, depression, and lack of interesting in studying and communication with peers. Instead of walking up to other students and introducing themselves, some students prefer staying in their rooms or going to the library. Lack of friendship and peer support make the student feeling overwhelmed, isolated and lonely. At this point, the decision to return home is rather common. In order to overcome this challenge, first year students should not be shy to talk to other students, to introduce themselves, and strive to participate in diverse college community projects. In other words, first year students should be visible to others.
Setting the discount rate to a constant above zero. Setting a nonzero discount rate can have equally unacceptable consequences by making catastrophic outcomes in the distant future appear trivial at today’s decision point, potentially biasing decisions against the interests of future generations (). Moreover, there is no consensus as to which discount rate to use (). This is problematic because widely varying policy decisions can be defended depending on the particular rate selected, posing a major challenge for analysis. One approach is to use several plausible rates to identify policies that are robust to the choice of rate (; ; ). Yet because of the strong sensitivity to the discount rate chosen, few policies may indeed be robust, and the benefits or costs may differ by large factors. For instance, in a model examining low-carbon electricity generation scenarios achieved through different degrees of emissions trading, found that when the discount rate applied to lost life-years was increased from 0% to 3%, the estimated health co-benefits of low-carbon electricity generation scenarios were reduced by about 50%.
With his mother’s explanation that “life is like a box of chocolates—you never know what you’re gonna get” in mind, Forrest is able to surmount obstacles and live a remarkably successful life despite his low IQ and the resultant discrimination (Forrest Gump).
An example of an adverse impact with a relatively simple causal pathway is increased pedestrian and cyclist exposure to road traffic injuries resulting from an increase in active transport (; ; ). In one analysis, estimated increases in morbidity and mortality from pedestrian and cyclist road traffic injuries in London (UK) were more than offset by decreases in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost from physical inactivity and to a lesser extent air pollution (), a finding reinforced by . More complex, indirect pathways can also yield adverse impacts—for example, switching some agricultural production from food to biofuel feedstocks can have complex, recursive macroeconomic effects including shifts in prices of various food staples (). In 2007, for instance, expanded biofuels production was estimated to be responsible for approximately 30% of the rapid rise in grain prices (). Such price increases, along with other economic shocks, increase undernutrition (; ), a major risk factor for mortality of children ). One analysis found that such dynamics likely increased child mortality in East and Southeast Asia in 2007 (; ). Large uncertainties exist, including the complex relationships among supply, demand, and global food prices (); in regional resilience to price spikes (); and in other drivers for the multiple health end points of undernutrition (). Despite these difficulties, nutrition-mediated health effects of some biofuel policies serve as a good example of a tractable co-harms estimation problem that could be used to inform future mitigation decisions (; ; ).