occur when a person has a significant sleep deprivation. The brain automatically shuts down, falling into a sleep state for a period that can last from a second to half a minute. The person falls asleep no matter what activity he or she is engaged in. Microsleeps are similar to and a person experiencing them is not consciously aware that they are occurring.
One possible reason for the many problems sleep deprivation causes today is the extent to which modern Western society ignores the importance of circadian rhythms, the daily sleep-wake cycles that are controlled by a combination of physiological and environmental factors, but certainly not by the force of will. In earlier times and in primitive societies, in other words, for the majority of human history, these cycles were synchronized with day-night cycles. In modern times, most of us synchronize our sleep periods with the clock instead, staying up well into the night as well as waking before sunrise. If synchronization with an external sign (the clock or the sun) was all that were involved, the process would be fairly easy and problem-free. Unfortunately, we also have an internal, biological clock to contend with, which evolved over hundreds of thousands of years of human experience before alarm clocks, graveyard shifts, and jet lag came along. When people are removed from the inﬂuence of external cues, perhaps by being placed in a windowless laboratory with no clocks or watches for several weeks, they continue to follow a steady sleep-wake cycle, but oddly enough, it is a twenty-ﬁve-hour cycle rather than a twenty-four-hour cycle, in which they fall asleep 1 hour later each night. The external cue (the sun) is used by the brain to reset its clock each day, and in its absence, the clock gets further and further off.
A survey found that college/university-aged students get an average of 6.7 hours of sleep each night. Sleep deprivation is common in first year college students as they adjust to the stress and social activities of college life. A study performed by the Department of Psychology at the in Taiwan concluded that freshmen received the shortest amount of sleep during the week. In 1997 the did research that compared students who went to school at 7:15 a.m. and those who went to school at 8:40 a.m. They found that students who went to school at 8:40 got higher grades and more sleep on weekday nights. One in four U.S. high school students admits to falling asleep in class at least once a week. It is known that during human adolescence, and therefore sleep patterns typically undergo marked changes. Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies indicate a 50% reduction of deep (stage 4) sleep and a 75% reduction in the peak amplitude of delta waves during NREM sleep in adolescence. School schedules are often incompatible with a corresponding delay in sleep offset, leading to a less than optimal amount of sleep for the majority of adolescents.
The specific causal relationships between sleep loss and effects on psychiatric disorders have been most extensively studied in patients with mood disorders. Shifts into mania in bipolar patients are often preceded by periods of , and sleep deprivation has been shown to induce a manic state in susceptible individuals. Sleep deprivation may represent a final common pathway in the genesis of mania, and sleep loss is both a precipitating and reinforcing factor for the manic state.
Sleep deprivation can sometimes be self-imposed due to a lack of desire to sleep and/or the habitual use of stimulant drugs (i.e. Cocaine, Amphetamines, etc.) Recent studies have also suggested that sleep deprivation produces similar effects in the brain to that of an SSRI in persons with depression, thus ensuing a clinical, self-imposed remedy. However, most individuals suffering from clinical depression are not aware that lack of sleep is having a direct positive effect on thinking. Sleep deprivation is also self imposed to achieve personal notoriety in the context of . Voluntary sleep deprivation is also utilized in the converting from monophasic sleep to .
[As quoted in 1] Based on the meta-analysis written by Pilcher and Huffcutt, sleep deprivation can be categorized into three types, which are the short-term, long term and partial sleep deprivation.
As stated earlier, the body needs sleep and the brain needs oxygen to function properly and without this physical need being met the consequence can result in psychological effects....
These factors associated with the psychological effects of sleep apnea can be controlled to a certain degree and improve the outcome people have while living with this condition.
The answer they provided was, “It is clear that sleep has an important psychological function… however the specific function of sleep has not been easily defined… sleep deprivation experienced in animals has clearly shown that sleep is required for survival” (Kushida)....
For my research two psychological approaches, Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Person-Centered Psychology, will be critically analyzed and discussed in depth in order to compare the techniques as well as effectiveness of each....
holds the scientifically documented record for the longest period of time a human being has intentionally gone without sleep not using stimulants of any kind. Gardner stayed awake for 264 hours (11 days), breaking the previous record of 260 hours held by Tom Rounds of Honolulu. Lt. Cmdr. John J. Ross of the U.S. Navy Medical Neuropsychiatric Research Unit later published an account of this event, which became well-known among sleep-deprivation researchers.
Bettelheim, a renowned child psychologist and a controversial writer of treatments of autism, stirred controversy through his life, especially through his famous “refrigerator mother” theory of the development of autism in children.
Recovery of cognitive function is accomplished more rapidly after acute total sleep deprivation than after chronic partial sleep restriction. Chronic deprivation is the more common in everyday life. Just one night of recovery sleep can reverse adverse effects of total sleep deprivation. Recovery sleep is more efficient than normal sleep with shorter and increased amounts of deep and REM sleep.
Several strategies are common in attempting to increase alertness and counteract the effects of sleep deprivation. is often used over short periods to boost wakefulness when acute sleep deprivation is experienced; however, caffeine is less effective if taken routinely. Other strategies recommended by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine include prophylactic sleep before deprivation, naps, other stimulants, and combinations thereof. However, the only sure and safe way to combat sleep deprivation is to increase nightly sleep time.