In fact Vann and Abraham (1990) found evidence that suggests that both 'good' and 'unsuccessful' language learners can be active users of similar LLS, though it is important that they also discovered that their unsuccessful learners "apparently...lacked...what are often called metacognitive strategies...which would enable them to assess the task and bring to bear the necessary strategies for its completion" (p.
Graham's (1997) work in French further indicates that L2/FL teachers can help students understand good LLS and should train them to develop and use them.A caution must also be noted though, because, as Skehan (1989) states, "there is always the possibility that the 'good' language learning strategies...are also used by bad language learners, but other reasons cause them to be unsuccessful" (p.
This change has been reflected in various ways in language education and applied linguistics, ranging from the Northeast Conference (1990) entitled "Shifting the Instructional Focus to the Learner" and annual "Learners' Conferences" held in conjuction with the TESL Canada convention since 1991, to key works on "the learner-centred curriculum" (Nunan, 1988, 1995) and "learner-centredness as language education" (Tudor, 1996).This article provides an overview of key issues concerning one consequence of the above shift: the focus on and use of language learning strategies (LLS) in second and foreign language (L2/FL) learning and teaching.
BACKGROUNDIn a helpful survey article, Weinstein and Mayer (1986) defined learning strategies (LS) broadly as "behaviours and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning" which are "intended to influence the learner's encoding process" (p.
With increasing competition in the industry, organizations must make decisions about strategic selections in products and services to compete in turbulent markets found that business growth and strategy changes by type of strategic positioning of the organization....
Comments on Virginia LoCastro's "Learning strategies and learning environments" -- Making sense of learning strategy assessment: Toward a higher standard of research accuracy.
6) has aptly noted, "our actions speak louder than words", and it is therefore important for professionals who use LLS training to also model such strategies both within their classroom teaching and, especially in EFL contexts, in their own FL learning.
As Graham suggests, "those teachers who have thought carefully about how they learned a language, about which strategies are most appropriate for which tasks, are more likely to be successful in developing 'strategic competence' in their students" (p.
Other than that, Mintzberg(1990) has developed the ten schools of thought about strategy formation, the designing schools: a process of conception, : a formal process, positioning school: an analytical process represent the classical approach in different ways....
Whittington has provided the development of strategic management thought into four perspectives: the Classical one, the Evolutionary, the Processual (process) and the Systemic perspectives.
The choice of strategy and sometimes a hybrid one may be appropriate) should be derived from, careful analysis of market structure and trends as well as evaluation of competitive strategies Market Conditions: United Arab Emirates is considered an attractive market for luxury brands; about 50 premium and luxury brands, including Zara, Tommy Hilfiger, Guess, Benetton, Levi’s etc, have opened stores in United Arab Emirates in recent years....
As new technologies allow organizations the ability to rapidly measure and assess its internal and external environmental factors, more efficient strategies can be quickly implemented.
Vic Strecher reveals the elements necessary for a purposeful life and how to acquire them and outlines an elegant strategy for improving energy, willpower, and long-term happiness and well-being.
“A convenient way to classify levels of strategy in view corporate-level strategy as responsible for market definition, business-level strategy is responsible for market navigation, and functional-level strategy as the foundation that supplies both of these” (Advameg, Strategy Levels, 2011).
I. INTRODUCTION TO STRATEGY AND STRATEGIC PLANNING A 2007 survey of European and American firms reported that more than ninety-five per cent have employed a strategic planning process.