Electoral processes and their accompanying rules and regulations tend to influence the political systems and in turn the voting psychology. Take for instance in a plurality system where a simple majority will suffice to grant the winner office. Small parties with no hope of winning tend to form pre-contest coalitions to have a greater appeal and attract a larger constituency of voters. On the other hand in a proportional representation system where legislative seats are based on party votes share. Parties with ideological similarities and common interests may converge to capture more seats. Not to be left out, voters tend to favor viable candidates with less likelihood of losing and hence tend to coalesce around the ‘restructured’ larger parties.
According to Bielasiak, Duverger’s law seeks to critically look at the relationship between electoral systems and party systems. He opines that in a plurality electoral system the winner by even a simple majority takes office and this tends to create two-party systems. Democratic considerations such as proportional representation (PR) on the other hand ensure the winning party gets more seats corresponding to its vote’s share. Proportional representation therefore tends to breed multiparty systems. In well established democracies, political parties’ front candidates, run campaigns and the party manifestos give impetus to the candidates election pledges.
Following the Civil War, African Americans received citizenship rights through a number of legislative achievements including the Fifteenth Amendment in 1870 which gave African Americans the right to vote and prohibited racial discrimination in voting. Even with these protections in place, many southern states resisted racial equality and skirted the law by administering tests designed to prevent African Americans from registering to vote and thus keeping them from participating in the electoral process.
The best way to end an essay is to restate your thesis and summarize your main points. Avoid including new information, “fluffy” language, or minor details. Write a memorable ending by making a provocative statement that ties everything together. If you want help with brainstorming and knowing what not to do, keep reading!
"Every American citizen must have an equal right to vote. Yet the harsh fact is that in many places, in this country, men and women are kept from voting simply because they are Negroes. Every device of which human ingenuity is capable has been used to deny this right. The Negro citizen may go to register only to be told that the day is wrong, or the hour is late, or the official in charge is late, or the official in charge is absent. And if he persists and he manages to present himself to register, he may be disqualified because he did not spell out his middle name or because he abbreviated a word on his application. And if he manages to fill out an application he is given a test. The register is the sole judge of whether he passes his test. He may be asked to recite the entire constitution, or explain the most complex provisions of state laws. And even a college degree cannot be used to prove that he can read and write. For the fact is that the only way to pass these barriers is to show a white skin. This bill will strike down restrictions to voting in all elections—federal, State, and local—which have been used to deny Negroes the right to vote."
Political parties are the vehicles used by individuals contesting for various representative positions in Government in an attempt to assume office. The term political party broadly refers to the organization which provides the platform for politicians to ascend to power. In truth, however, the party encompasses the organization, the party structure and its leadership. In addition to this it also takes into consideration the politicians and the voters who align themselves to the party and remain loyal to its ideals. Political systems refer to the manner in which political parties package or brand themselves in relation to other parties in order to remain competitive.
The Act outlawed literacy tests and poll taxes as a way of assessing whether anyone was fit or unfit to vote. As far as Johnson was concerned, all you needed to vote was American citizenship and the registration of your name on an electoral list. No form of hindrance to this would be tolerated by the courts.
The impact of this act was dramatic. By the end of 1966, only four out of the traditional 13 Southern states had less than 50% of African Americans registered to vote. By 1968, even hard-line Mississippi had 59% of African Americans registered. In the longer term, far more African Americans were elected into public office. A few years later, when the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) was established in 1971, there were thirteen members of the U.S. House of Representatives and one black member of the U.S. Senate. The Act was the boost that the civil rights cause needed to move swiftly along. It was a combination of demonstrations and federal support which paved the way for this important legislation. President Johnson proved this and his efforts were labeled by some as a "legislative revolution."
President Johnson announced to a joint session of Congress that he would bring them an effective voting rights bill. Echoing the spiritual anthem of the civil rights movement, he said simply, "We Shall Overcome."
In Conclusion, Political parties are a very important aspect of modern governance and democracy. Parties operate under the law of the land, their own set of rules and by virtue of being electoral vehicles; they also operate under electoral process regulations. In this way Duverger’s law explains the relationship between electoral processes and systems and political parties and systems. The idea therefore is for parties to come up with strategies to influence voting patterns by taking into account the dynamics of the interrelationships.
Although flawlessness has never been achieved, men have certainly tried to keep the voting system as efficient as possible, with the least possible amounts of votes being lost or mis-counted.
This would double the size of a certain group in unfair proportions to other groups.ConclusionThere were some points that were missed from this essay as they are too difficult to conclude upon, such as if parents would influence the votes of their children, and people having children so that they have a bigger team of voters, etc.